Copper, Mineral Deposits, and the Geology of Southeast Arizona


The Bisbee Group of the Tombstone Hills, Southeastern.. U.S. Geological Survey, 1996

The Balboa Discovery, Cobre Panama (PDF)      Colin Burge, PDAC , 3/2014

Copper Production – Past, Present, and Future A tarnished penny or shiny new coin? Professor Mary M. Poulton, Director of Lowell Institute for Mineral Resources, University of Arizona

Everything You Need to Know About Copper Porphyries – INFOGRAPHIC The Visual Capitalist (PDF)

Grasberg District Ore Bodies  Freeport – McMoRan (

High Sulfidation & Low Sulfidation Porphyry Copper/skarn Systems….

Dr. Marco T. Einaudi, 1994

History of the Silver Bell Mining District David F. Briggs, 5/2017 NEW

The Legacy of Copper Mining in Arizona (Video)  Arizona Mining Alliance, 2012

Mineral Exploration Strategies  [Balboa Discovery at Cobre Panama]     E&MJ News, May 5, 2014

Skarn Copper Deposits             Copper Investing News, 2011

Skarn and Skarn Deposits       Dr. Larry Meinert, 1992

Skarn deposits – Characteristics and Exploration Criteria  Dr. Larry Meinert, 2013

What is a Porphyry Copper Deposit? David F. Briggs, 2014

Why High-Grade Gold Deposits Still Exist     The Claim Post, 2015

World-class Copper Deposits      Copper Investing News, August 1,2015

In-Situ Copper Recovery Projects

Recovery of Copper by Solution Mining Techniques  D.F. Briggs, AZGS 8/2015

Excelsior Mining Corp (Liberty Star is not affiliated with Excelsior Mining)

Florence Copper (Liberty Star is not affiliated with Florence Copper)

   National Mining Hall of Fame

Kenyon E. Richard
1915 – 1993

James Harold Courtright
1908 – 1986

These outstanding exploration geologists were mentors to CEO/Chief Geologist Jim Briscoe early in his career.
James Harold Courtright “James Harold Courtright was an extraordinary exploration geologist. He teamed up with his life-long colleague and friend Kenyon E. Richard to produce an exploration record for ASARCO Incorporated that was described in the 1995 Arizona Geological Society Digest 20 as “…the all-time most successful porphyry copper program.”
Kenyon E. Richard “Kenyon Richard was born in San Francisco and graduated magna cum laude from the University of Nevada, Reno, in 1937. He then joined the E. N. Pennybaker exploration team with Consolidated Coppermines Corp. at Ely, Nevada, as a geologist, and in 1941 he hired Harold Courtright. In 1945, Kenyon and Harold joined American Smelting and Refining Co. in Salt Lake City as exploration geologists. They were destined to become perhaps the most famous and successful team in the history of mineral exploration.”
 Lowell – Guilbert Porphyry Copper Model
JMG Porphyry Copper Model

Fig. 1 Lowell and Guilbert, 1970

“Porphyry copper deposits, in idealized form (Fig. 1), are each centered on an igneous intrusion composed of porphyry, which is a fine grained granitic rock with larger crystals of feldspar. The porphyry is surrounded by concentric shells containing different mineral assemblages that reflect the conditions of hydrothermal alteration and mineralization at the time that the magma was intruded and crystallized to form the porphyry. Copper is typically concentrated at a specific zone within these concentric alteration-mineral assemblages. This model has been used to help find porphyry copper deposits where only parts of the alteration zones have been located. The idealized porphyry copper model was identified by J. David Lowell, an exploration geologist working on the San Manuel porphyry copper deposit north of Tucson, and University of Arizona geology professor John Guilbert.” From Arizona Geology and New Concepts in Geosciences, AZGS, 2013

Lowell & Guilbert Porphyr Model Applied to Hay Mountain 01.09.2017

James A. Briscoe’s Exploration Projects, California & Nevada

“Napa County’s Mother Lode”     Napa Valley Register, 2009
Wind Mountain Project
The Story of the Wind Mountain Gold and Silver Mine
Western Mining History – Wind Mountain Mine
McDermitt Mine History Of Discovery
Silver Predator McDermitt Mine

Science & Industry

Advancing Mining (Website) News, Tips, and Expert Info about Mining, Minerals, and Exploration Sponsored by ThermoFisher Scientific
A Look At Historic Copper Prices (Link) Copper Investing News 4/2016
Anatomy of a Mine from Prospect to Production  (PDF) Copper Investing News, 4/2016 US Dept of Agriculture, Forest Service, 1995
Caldera Demonstration Model USGS, 2010

Dr. Karen J. Wenrich, Research Geologist – Uranium

Uranium Mining in Arizona – High Grade and Safe 
LEGISLATIVE HEARING ON H.R. 644 – The Subcommittee on National Parks, Forests and Public Lands of the Committee on Natural Resources – July 21, 2009 
Recognition of Breccia Pipes in Northern Arizona  By Karen Wennrich and Hoyt Sulphin (1988)  

Wikipedia® Articles

Wikipedia® Article on Arizona Breccia Pipe Uranium Mineralization

Wikipedia® Article on Mineral Exploration
Wikipedia® Article on Geology
Wikipedia® Article on Rare Earth Elements