Copper, Mineral Deposits, and the Geology of Southeast Arizona


Arizona Mining Review Monthly Video Magazine  Hosted by Lee Allison, Arizona State Geologist

The Bisbee Group of the Tombstone Hills, Southeastern Arizona Stratigraphy, Structure, Metamorphism, and Mineralization  U.S. Geological Survey, 1996

The Balboa Discovery, Cobre Panama (PDF)      Colin Burge, PDAC , 3/2014

Copper Production – Past, Present, and Future A tarnished penny or shiny new coin? Professor Mary M. Poulton, Director of Lowell Institute for Mineral Resources, University of Arizona

Grasberg District Ore Bodies  Freeport – McMoRan (

High Sulfidation & Low Sulfidation Porphyry Copper/skarn Systems…. Dr. Marco T. Einaudi, 1994

The Legacy of Copper Mining in Arizona (Video)  Arizona Mining Alliance, 2012

Mineral Exploration Strategies  [Balboa Discovery at Cobre Panama]     E&MJ News, May 5, 2014

Skarn Copper Deposits             Copper Investing News, 2011

Skarn and Skarn Deposits       Dr. Larry Meinert, 1992

Skarn deposits – Characteristics and Exploration Criteria  Dr. Larry Meinert, 2013

What is a Porphyry Copper Deposit? David F. Briggs, 2014

Why High-Grade Gold Deposits Still Exist     The Claim Post, 2015

World-class Copper Deposits      Copper Investing News, August 1,2015

In-Situ Copper Recovery Projects

Recovery of Copper by Solution Mining Techniques  D.F. Briggs, AZGS 8/2015

Excelsior Mining Corp (Liberty Star is not affiliated with Excelsior Mining)

Florence Copper (Liberty Star is not affiliated with Florence Copper)

Mining Hall of Fame

James Herold Courtright “James Harold Courtright was an extraordinary exploration geologist. He teamed up with his life-long colleague and friend Kenyon E. Richard to produce an exploration record for ASARCO Incorporated that was described in the 1995 Arizona Geological Society Digest 20 as “…the all-time most successful porphyry copper program.”
Kenyon E. Richard  “Kenyon Richard was born in San Francisco and graduated magna cum laude from the University of Nevada, Reno, in 1937. He then joined the E. N. Pennybaker exploration team with Consolidated Coppermines Corp. at Ely, Nevada, as a geologist, and in 1941 he hired Harold Courtright. In 1945, Kenyon and Harold joined American Smelting and Refining Co. in Salt Lake City as exploration geologists. They were destined to become perhaps the most famous and successful team in the history of mineral exploration.”
 Lowell – Guilbert Porphyry Copper ModelJMG Porphyry Copper Model

James A. Briscoe’s Exploration Projects, California & Nevada

“Napa County’s Mother Lode”     Napa Valley Register, 2009

Wind Mountain Project

The Story of the Wind Mountain Gold and Silver Mine

Western Mining History – Wind Mountain Mine

McDermitt Mine History Of Discovery

Silver Predator McDermitt Mine

Science & Industry

Anatomy of a Mine from Prospect to Production  US Dept of Agriculture, Forest Service
Caldera Demonstration Model  USGS, 2010
 Advancing Mining (Website) News, Tips, and Expert Info about Mining, Minerals, and Exploration
Salman Partners Economist Calls Bottom In Copper 

A Look At Historic Copper Prices


Seeking Alpha, 7/2015

Copper Investing News, 4/2016





Modern life’s devices under China’s grip? 60 Minutes, 3/22/2015
Rethinking Rare Earth Element Potential in Arizona Arizona Geology, 11/2012
 Jim Briscoe on REEs  08/2013

Dr. Karen J. Wenrich, Research Geologist – Uranium

Uranium Mining in Arizona – High Grade and Safe 

LEGISLATIVE HEARING ON H.R. 644 – The Subcommittee on National Parks, Forests and Public Lands of the Committee on Natural Resources – July 21, 2009 

Recognition of Breccia Pipes in Northern Arizona  By Karen Wennrich and Hoyt Sulphin (1988)  

Wikipedia® Articles

Wikipedia® Article on Arizona Breccia Pipe Uranium Mineralization

Wikipedia® Article on Mineral Exploration

Wikipedia® Article on Geology

Wikipedia® Article on Rare Earth Elements